FFA (Fundus Fluorescein Angiography)

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) is a diagnostic imaging procedure or in other words an eye exam to record the blood flow in the Retina and choroid. Choroid is the vascular layers at the back of the eye.

This is a non-invasive treatment that aids in the detailed visualization of the retinal circulation. FFA highlights the complex web of blood arteries at the back of the eye by using the fluorescence principle. Using this method, ophthalmologists can identify vascular issues and track the development of retinal diseases.

This Angiography involves intravenous administration of fluorescein dye. This fluorescent substance emits a greenish glow when exposed to blue light, making injections rapid in terms of reaching retinal blood vessels quickly for imaging at various intervals allowing an ophthalmologist to capture images that represent its behavior within these vessels, providing dynamic representations of abnormal blood flow or leakage areas in retinal vasculature.

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Process for Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

The following process is followed commonly:

  • Preparing for Fluorescein Angiography: Prior to conducting fluorescein angiography, eye drops will be used to dilate the pupil. Once this process has taken effect, they're comfortable placed before a Fundus Fluorescein Angiography camera for image acquisition.
  • Intravenous Injection of Fluorescein Dye: A trained healthcare provider injects fluorescein dye intravenously through an arm vein in order to reach retinal vasculature quickly and reach it immediately.
  • Image Capture and Analysis: As the dye progresses through retinal blood vessels, the Fundus Fluorescein Angiography camera captures high-resolution images that reveal vital details about blood flow - any blockages, dilations or abnormal vessel formation. These pictures offer important clues as to where there may be disruptions in bloodflow such as blockages, dilations or formation of abnormal vessels.
  • Examination and Interpretation: An ophthalmologist carefully studies images to interpret their progression, noting the timing, sequence, intensity and timing of dye-emitted images to identify retinal conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and retinal vascular occlusions.

Why FFA is required?

Fluorescein angiography plays an essential role in diagnosing and managing various retinal diseases and conditions. Here are its applications:

  • Diabetic Retinopathy: Fluorescein angiography allows the identification of abnormal blood vessels and leakage areas associated with diabetic retinopathy, providing valuable information regarding its stage and appropriate treatments approaches.
  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD): It provides invaluable insights into AMD by characterizing blood vessel abnormalities like choroidal neovascularization. This knowledge is essential for devising the most appropriate treatment plan.
  • Retinal Vascular Occlusions: FFA helps physicians visualize retinal vascular occlusions quickly and accurately, enabling them to assess severity quickly and implement timely interventions.
  • Retinal Vein Occlusion: It can assist with evaluating the degree of retinal vein occlusion and detecting macular edema - crucial components in making treatment decisions.
  • Retinal Artery Occlusion: FFA can assist in diagnosing and assessing retinal artery occlusion, the blockage of retinal arteries. By understanding its extent and impact on retinal blood flow, FFA provides insight into any extent or impact on blood circulation in the retina.
  • Macular Edema: FFA can be used to assess macular edema, which involves fluid accumulation in the macula. By pinpointing leakage points and measuring severity of edema, FFA provides invaluable data that identifies leakage points as well as severity.
  • Retinal Tumors: FFA can help assess the blood supply and vascularity of retinal tumors, helping differentiate between benign and malignant growths and providing support in treatment planning.

Fluorescein Angiography may be necessary in treating various eye diseases. By providing critical insight into retinal blood flow and contributing to diagnosis, monitoring, and management of various ocular conditions.

Do I have to get admitted for this procedure?

No. This procedure is an out-patient procedure. You will not be admitted for angiography. You need not rest after this procedure.

Best Diagnostic Centre for FFA in Delhi

Save Sight Centre is an outstanding choice if you are in search of an accurate Fundus Fluorescein Angiography diagnostic centre in Delhi. Our dedicated and qualified staff offer you personalized care as part of this procedure, while its cutting-edge equipment makes our facility the go-to spot.

Best Diagnostic Centre for FFA in Delhi

This Eye hospital offers advanced diagnostic equipment in a relaxed setting to deliver accurate and reliable FFA results. Equipped with state-of-the-art cameras and imaging technology designed specifically for FFA procedures, patients can experience close up visualization of retinal blood vessels.

Save Sight Centre's team of FFA examiners are comprised of highly skilled professionals with vast experience performing FFA examinations. With extensive knowledge in retinal disorders and their interpretation of FFA images with precision and accuracy, these professionals help detect early, diagnose and effectively treat various retinal conditions.

More than 2,60,000 patients have relied on the quality and accuracy of the diagnosis obtained from us.


Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are two imaging techniques commonly employed by ophthalmologists to diagnose retinal conditions, with both providing valuable information about its surface. While both offer valuable data about retinal health. The following comparison will help you know better:

Principle and Imaging Process: It involves injecting fluorescent dye (fluorescein) directly into the bloodstream to highlight retinal blood vessels, using a special camera to capture images as the dye circulates throughout your system. This allows visualizing blood flow as well as any abnormalities in retinal vasculature. It uses light waves to produce cross-sectional images of the retina. By measuring reflection and scattering of light, this technology provides detailed information about retinal layers, thickness, structural abnormalities and abnormalities in detail.
Diagnostic Capabilities: It can be particularly beneficial in evaluating blood circulation and detecting retinal vascular abnormalities such as leakage, neovascularization and capillary non-perfusion - all key indicators for the diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. It provides high-resolution images that enable precise assessment of retinal structures such as the macula, optic nerve and layers of retina. OCT aids in diagnosing and monitoring conditions like macular edema, macular holes and vitreomacular traction. Visualization of Pathology:
Visualization of Pathology: It allows visualization of retinal blood vessels, providing dynamic insight into leakage, blockages or abnormal blood flow areas that need further treatment. Furthermore, this process provides dynamic information regarding retinal perfusion as well as response to treatment regimens. It provides detailed cross-sectional images that enable identification of retinal thickening, fluid accumulation and abnormalities within the retina or subretinal region, as well as structural changes or abnormalities within them.

OCT's cross-sectional imagery also helps in the evaluation of structural changes that occur over time and helps guide treatment decisions. Limitations and Considerations: OCT should only be used under clinically prudent circumstances due to potential limitations that might limit its application.
Limitations and Considerations: It requires injecting an intravenous dye injection, which may present risks and temporary side effects, into an IV line to provide information about vasculature without providing detailed anatomical details about retinal layers. It imaging techniques offer noninvasive visualisation of vascular abnormalities; however, its capabilities for this are limited as it only captures structural information and may fail to capture dynamic blood flow changes.
  • Complementary Role: FFA and OCT can work hand in hand to provide an extensive evaluation of retinal conditions, with FFA helping identify any vascular changes while OCT provides more anatomical detail as well as helping monitor treatment plans.

Are there any side effects?

During the injection you may feel warm or experience a hot flush. This only lasts seconds then disappears.

Your skin will be pale yellow and your urine coloured fluorescent green.

This is entirely normal and may take two days to wear off.

Can I eat and drink before the test?

Yes. It is advisable to eat a light meal before the test. If you have diabetes you must ensure you have had enough to eat.

Can I come alone or drive home?

No. You are always advised not to come alone for angiography.The drops and bright light from the camera will blur your vision for a short time. You may not be able to drive back home.

Should I take my normal medication?

Yes, all your regular medication should be continued. You will be asked before the test what medication you are taking.

Should I inform you of my past medical history?

Yes, this is very important. Also inform us of any allergies that you may have. If you think that you may be pregnant, please inform the nursing/medical staff.

When will I get the test reports?

You can get the reports on the same day.